Merci pour votre intérêt.
Pour mieux comprendre ce qui a été dit, je mets le texte anglais. J'espère que cela vous aidera. Si vous souhaitez, je vous continuer et je presenterai les textes des autres 3 parties.
Comment distinguer une bonne guitare d'une mauvaise? Critères de sélection de l'instrument. "l'Attaque".[Part1]
-We've got a new instrument today, we played it for a while. The strings were put on just yesterday. You put the strings on yesterday evening, right?
- And we have some questions from people who are interested. In fact, there are quite a lot of them here. We will announce some of these questions and some will wait until our next record. Here we go: "How to distinguish a good guitar from a bad one? What should be our guide when choosing an instrument?” What could we recommend, just the simplest things?
- The difficulty of this question is that, first of all, we have to define the ['kætəg(ə)rɪ] category of the instrument. Because...
- Of which class, right?
- Yeah, of which class the instrument is. I.e. a learner’s instrument, a professional instrument - not a student instrument - intended for a serious musician, for concert work. It is clear that the range of requirements for an instrument designed for highly professional concert work is very wide, but there are some general rules common for all instruments, i.e. the instrument can be simple, of a low price category, but at the same time it can be, as we say, the right one. Right in what sense: first of all, it should have the right sound generation. The sound generation is a...
- Yeah, many people don't understand what “the sound generation” means. I also often say to people "attack", "sound generation", and they ask: "What is it?”.
- The sound generation is all about how the sound occurs, how long it lasts, and how it fades out. And how these very sounds interact with each other. The notion of "sound generation" does not include the notion of "timbre". And this is a [ˌfʌndə'ment(ə)l fundamental thing, because many people, including professional musicians, do not understand it. Often the musician plays an instrument, for some reason he likes the instrument, and he says about this instrument: "it has a very good timbre," although the timbre there may be pretty mediócre. So, the sound generation consists of two main indicators: this is the attack you mentioned... Well, about the attack it’s very simple, because the guitar – as well as any musical instrument in general - is a kind of mechanical device, then from the moment you touch the string, that is, the moment of plucking, before the instrument’s body fully engages, i.e., our string plays a role of a generator, it vibrates and, because it is even and has an equal thickness and elastîcity, it generates the entire spectrum of harmonics. The harmonics are frequencies multiple to the main tone frequency of the note that you are extracting. And then the body amplifies it all, working both as an amplifier and as an equalizer, because depending on the instrument design, the guitar body is like, let’s say, the equalizer on your sound system... where you have 100 Hz, 200 Hz, 500, 1000, and you can make something lower, something higher, and you will in one way or other change the color of the sound. So the body performs this function as well as the function of an amplifier. And the problem is - since the pieces we play include switching fast enough from note to note - that the body works at maximum speed, i.e. this time interval, measured in milliseconds, which passes from plucking to fully engagement of the body, should be minimal. This time interval is called the attack speed.
- The speed of the sound arising.
- No, not the speed of the sound arising. The string engages earlier than the body does. The string is primary, it generates some sound there.
- It gives away its energy, doesn't it?
- Yes, it does. And the speed at what the body will engage after the string - this is the attack of the instrument. And the attack referred to the string depends on your plucking, on the technique of plucking. You can make quick movements or you can make smooth movements, depending on what you want to achieve as a timbre result, in particular, to soften the sound, to sharpen it - etc. But the attack of an instrument is how much time will pass from the time you pulled the string before the whole body is fully operational. And, all other things being equal, the less time it is, the faster is the body’s engagement, the more comfortable and convenient it is to play.
- I just wanted to make it clear: the attack can be not bad on quite cheap instruments as well?
- It doesn’t depend on the class of the instrument. The class of the instrument can affect the beauty of the sound, timbre flexibility, variability, the power, for example, can also depend on it. And the attack speed doesn’t depend on how high-end the instrument is. I.e., you can easily find an instrument that is just a factory-made one, for some three hundred dollars, which could have a fine attack. Just luckily made the right elasticity.
- Does the dynamics depend on the attack?
- I would say, not necessarily, there is no direct connection. That is, there can be an instrument with a relatively slow attack, relatively slow means up to certain limits. Why - I'll make a reservation: if the instrument has a very slow attack, it will lead to the fact that when playing music it won’t have time to switch from note to note, and all this music will turn into such a mess, i.e., the following notes and the previous ones will overlap ...
- It must be especially noticeable when playing some lively music, isn't it?
- Yes. And even if not very lively, it is also appreciable, when we deal with open strings there.
- For example, it's hard to play passages on the guitar, and many people don't manage it. I guess it depends a lot on how it reacts, how fast it reacts?
- Not only passages. But the guitar passages are basically pretty hard to play. It is just connected with the complexity of the guitar playing technique. It's especially difficult to play – now I’m certainly leaving my home turf, but nevertheless...
- That's okay.
- It is particularly difficult to play upward passages when the effort goes towards oneself and the hand moves from the string in the opposite direction. When you play a downward passage, you can quasi drag your hand from string to string, but when you play an upward passage, you can't drag anything. You have to move your hand exactly by these 11 mm, which are the distance between the strings. But there is, for example, a technique where the speed of the attack has a fundamental impact, it is legato.
- Or some embellishments when we play melismata in baroque music.
- Sure. Now I'm playing legato: I don't make any effort at all. I can sit here and pull as long as I want. And when you face the fact that you need to play legato... I mean, I do not make any efforts now.
- Yes, I see.
- I just put my fingers on it, and everything is sounding. And when you need to smash a finger on it, than another one to make your legato sound properly - and the outcome isn’t as expected - that means that the instrument doesn’t have time to response, because the effort for the plucking is much more than the effort for legato, and if the instrument has a detained attack, it does not have enough time or energy to engage quickly.
- Is there another general test for choosing an instrument?
- We haven't finished yet. In this case, I spoke only about the attack. When we play the bass, for example, there must be a certain feeling that the sound appears as if by clapping, so to say. You can’t hear it when playing higher tones, but when playing bass you can.
- Now you have a little turned away from the microphones. So. I can hear it, yes. It’s like an explosion, isn’t it?
- Yes, there is a feeling of such a clap, a shot. It shouldn’t occur that you pulled - and after a while your sound starts to swell up and gain power. It's not okay. But again, we probably are talking about people who already have something to do with guitar...
- Absolutely, yes. Well, I mean, if someone is attending a music college, he has to make a choice regarding his instrument.
- A college is already quite a serious level. The second story is also fundamentally important and also related to the sound generation, it’s the dynamics.